Muhammad Ruhi al-Khalidi (1864-1913)
August 6, 2021
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Palestinian Timeline

Biography | A pioneer of modern historical research in Palestine, Muhammad Ruhi al-Khalidi completed his postgraduate studies at al-Maktab al-malaki in Istanbul and then at the Sorbonne in Paris. He was influenced by the ideas of religious reformists and was associated with its most prominent advocates, namely Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and Muhammad Abdu. He was appointed Consul of the Ottoman Empire in Bordeaux and was among the first to recognize Zionism's threats to Palestine. He wrote a manuscript on Zionism titled Zionism, or the Zionist Question, then began to publicly warn of its threats in his speeches after he was elected one of Jerusalem’s envoys to the Council of Envoys in Istanbul.

Learn more about Muhammad Ruhi al-Khalidi by reading his biography on the Palestinian Timeline.


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